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Research Article

Spartan: A Comprehensive Tool for Understanding Uncertainty in Simulations of Biological Systems

  • Kieran Alden mail,

    k.j.alden@bham.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Centre for Systems Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom

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  • Mark Read,

    Affiliation: Department of Electronics, University of York, York, United Kingdom

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  • Jon Timmis,

    Affiliations: Department of Electronics, University of York, York, United Kingdom, Department of Computer Science, University of York, York, United Kingdom

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  • Paul S. Andrews,

    Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, University of York, York, United Kingdom

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  • Henrique Veiga-Fernandes,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal

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  • Mark Coles

    Affiliation: Centre for Immunology and Infection, University of York and Hull York Medical School, York, United Kingdom

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About the Authors

Kieran Alden
Centre for Systems Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Mark Read, Jon Timmis
Department of Electronics, University of York, York, United Kingdom
Jon Timmis, Paul S. Andrews
Department of Computer Science, University of York, York, United Kingdom
Henrique Veiga-Fernandes
Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Mark Coles
Centre for Immunology and Infection, University of York and Hull York Medical School, York, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: k.j.alden@bham.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KA MR JT PSA MC. Performed the experiments: KA. Analyzed the data: KA MR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MR HVF MC. Wrote the paper: KA MR JT PSA HVF MC. Provided biological expertise in the development of the simulator and understanding of the results it generated: HVF MC.