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Policy Forum

Legal Remedies for Medical Ghostwriting: Imposing Fraud Liability on Guest Authors of Ghostwritten Articles

  • Simon Stern mail,

    simon.stern@utoronto.ca

    Affiliation: Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Trudo Lemmens

    Affiliation: Faculties of Law and Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: August 02, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001070
  • Published in PLOS Medicine

About the Authors

Simon Stern
Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Trudo Lemmens
Faculties of Law and Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: simon.stern@utoronto.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: SS TL. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SS TL. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SS TL. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: SS TL. Jointly developed the structure and arguments of the paper: SS TL. Wrote the first draft of sections 1 and 2, and had primary responsibility for the discussion of concerns associated with ghostwriting: TL. Wrote the first draft of section 3, and had primary responsibility for the discussion of fraud: SS. Made critical revisions and approved the final version: SS TL.