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Research Article

Poles Apart: The “Bipolar” Pteropod Species Limacina helicina Is Genetically Distinct Between the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans

  • Brian Hunt equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Brian Hunt, Jan Strugnell

    bhunt@eos.ubc.ca (BH); J.Strugnell@latrobe.edu.au (JS)

    Affiliation: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Jan Strugnell equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Brian Hunt, Jan Strugnell

    bhunt@eos.ubc.ca (BH); J.Strugnell@latrobe.edu.au (JS)

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia

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  • Nina Bednarsek,

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Katrin Linse,

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • R. John Nelson,

    Affiliation: Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada

    X
  • Evgeny Pakhomov,

    Affiliation: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    X
  • Brad Seibel,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, United States of America

    X
  • Dirk Steinke,

    Affiliation: Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

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  • Laura Würzberg

    Affiliation: Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Published: March 23, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009835
  • Published in PLOS ONE

About the Authors

Brian Hunt, Evgeny Pakhomov
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Jan Strugnell
Department of Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia
Nina Bednarsek, Katrin Linse
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
R. John Nelson
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada
Brad Seibel
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, United States of America
Dirk Steinke
Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Laura Würzberg
Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: BPVH JS. Performed the experiments: BPVH JS. Analyzed the data: JS. Wrote the paper: BPVH. Contributed to direct funding of research: BPVH JS. Contributed to sample collection: BPVH NB KL JN EP BS LW. Contributed to revision and critical appraisal of the manuscript: JS NB KL JN EP BS DS LW. Approved final version of the manuscript: JS NB KL JN EP BS DS LW. Contributed to analysis of data: DS.