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Research Article

The Genome of a Bacillus Isolate Causing Anthrax in Chimpanzees Combines Chromosomal Properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis Virulence Plasmids

  • Silke R. Klee equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Silke R. Klee, Elzbieta B. Brzuszkiewicz

    klees@rki.de

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Elzbieta B. Brzuszkiewicz equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Silke R. Klee, Elzbieta B. Brzuszkiewicz

    Affiliation: Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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  • Herbert Nattermann,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Holger Brüggemann,

    Affiliation: Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

    Current address: Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany

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  • Susann Dupke,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Antje Wollherr,

    Affiliation: Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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  • Tatjana Franz,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Georg Pauli,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Bernd Appel,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

    Current address: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany

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  • Wolfgang Liebl,

    Affiliation: Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

    Current address: Technical University of München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany

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  • Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann,

    Affiliation: LANADA/Laboratoire Central de Pathologie Animale, Bingerville, Côte d'Ivoire

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  • Christophe Boesch,

    Affiliation: Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Frauke-Dorothee Meyer,

    Affiliation: Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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  • Fabian H. Leendertz,

    Affiliation: Research Group Emerging Zoonoses (NG2), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Heinz Ellerbrok,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Gerhard Gottschalk,

    Affiliation: Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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  • Roland Grunow,

    Affiliation: Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany

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  • Heiko Liesegang

    Affiliation: Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany

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  • Published: July 09, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010986
  • Published in PLOS ONE

About the Authors

Silke R. Klee, Herbert Nattermann, Susann Dupke, Tatjana Franz, Georg Pauli, Bernd Appel, Heinz Ellerbrok, Roland Grunow
Centre for Biological Security (ZBS), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany
Fabian H. Leendertz
Research Group Emerging Zoonoses (NG2), Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany
Elzbieta B. Brzuszkiewicz, Holger Brüggemann, Antje Wollherr, Wolfgang Liebl, Frauke-Dorothee Meyer, Gerhard Gottschalk, Heiko Liesegang
Goettingen Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann
LANADA/Laboratoire Central de Pathologie Animale, Bingerville, Côte d'Ivoire
Christophe Boesch
Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: klees@rki.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SRK EBB HN GP BA WL CB FHL HE GG RG HL. Performed the experiments: SRK HN SD TF FDM. Analyzed the data: SRK EBB HB SD AW HL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ECH FHL. Wrote the paper: SRK EBB HB GP GG RG HL.