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Research Article

Prospective Genomic Characterization of the German Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 Outbreak by Rapid Next Generation Sequencing Technology

  • Alexander Mellmann equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Alexander Mellmann, Dag Harmsen, Craig A. Cummings

    Affiliation: Institute of Hygiene, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Dag Harmsen equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Alexander Mellmann, Dag Harmsen, Craig A. Cummings

    dharmsen@uni-muenster.de

    Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Craig A. Cummings equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Alexander Mellmann, Dag Harmsen, Craig A. Cummings

    Affiliation: Life Technologies, Foster City, California, United States of America

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  • Emily B. Zentz,

    Affiliation: OpGen, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Shana R. Leopold,

    Affiliation: Institute of Hygiene, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Alain Rico,

    Affiliation: Life Technologies, Darmstadt, Germany

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  • Karola Prior,

    Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Rafael Szczepanowski,

    Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Yongmei Ji,

    Affiliation: Life Technologies, Foster City, California, United States of America

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  • Wenlan Zhang,

    Affiliation: Institute of Hygiene, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Stephen F. McLaughlin,

    Affiliation: Life Technologies, Foster City, California, United States of America

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  • John K. Henkhaus,

    Affiliation: OpGen, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Benjamin Leopold,

    Affiliation: Institute of Hygiene, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Martina Bielaszewska,

    Affiliation: Institute of Hygiene, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Rita Prager,

    Affiliation: Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branch, Wernigerode, Germany

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  • Pius M. Brzoska,

    Affiliation: Life Technologies, Foster City, California, United States of America

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  • Richard L. Moore,

    Affiliation: OpGen, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Simone Guenther,

    Affiliation: Life Technologies, Darmstadt, Germany

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  • Jonathan M. Rothberg,

    Affiliation: Ion Torrent by Life Technologies, Guilford, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • Helge Karch

    Affiliation: Institute of Hygiene, University Münster, Münster, Germany

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  • Published: July 20, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022751
  • Published in PLOS ONE

About the Authors

Alexander Mellmann, Shana R. Leopold, Wenlan Zhang, Benjamin Leopold, Martina Bielaszewska, Helge Karch
Institute of Hygiene, University Münster, Münster, Germany
Dag Harmsen, Karola Prior, Rafael Szczepanowski
Department of Periodontology, University Münster, Münster, Germany
Craig A. Cummings, Yongmei Ji, Stephen F. McLaughlin, Pius M. Brzoska
Life Technologies, Foster City, California, United States of America
Emily B. Zentz, John K. Henkhaus, Richard L. Moore
OpGen, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America
Alain Rico, Simone Guenther
Life Technologies, Darmstadt, Germany
Rita Prager
Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branch, Wernigerode, Germany
Jonathan M. Rothberg
Ion Torrent by Life Technologies, Guilford, Connecticut, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: dharmsen@uni-muenster.de

Competing Interests

Dr. Cummings, Mr. Rico, Dr. Ji, Mr. McLaughlin, Dr. Broska, Dr. Guenther, and Dr. Rothberg are all employees of Life Technologies, Inc. Ms. Zentz, Mr. Henkhaus, and Dr. Moore are all employees of OpGen, Inc. Dr. Harmsen is a part-time employee of the RIDOM Bioinformatics company. While these authors are company employees, this does not alter their adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AM DH CAC SG JMR HK. Performed the Ion Torrent sequencing: DH KP RS WZ AR SG. Performed Optical Mapping: EBZ JKH RLM. Performed genome assembly: CAC YJ SFM PMB. Performed phylogenetic analysis: AM DH SL BL. Performed and analyzed plasmid profiling: MB RP. First draft of manuscript: AM DH CAC. Approved the final version of the manuscript: AM DH CAC EBZ SRL AR KP RS YJ WZ SFM JKH BL MB RP PMB RLM SG JMR HK.