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Research Article

Foraging Behavior and Success of a Mesopelagic Predator in the Northeast Pacific Ocean: Insights from a Data-Rich Species, the Northern Elephant Seal

  • Patrick W. Robinson mail,

    robinson@biology.ucsc.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    X
  • Daniel P. Costa,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    X
  • Daniel E. Crocker,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California, United States of America

    X
  • Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso,

    Affiliation: Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C., Unidad Guaymas, Guaymas, Sonora, México

    X
  • Cory D. Champagne,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    X
  • Melinda A. Fowler,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    X
  • Chandra Goetsch,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    X
  • Kimberly T. Goetz,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Jason L. Hassrick,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Luis A. Hückstädt,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Carey E. Kuhn,

    Affiliation: National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center/National Marine Fisheries Service/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Jennifer L. Maresh,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Sara M. Maxwell,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Birgitte I. McDonald,

    Affiliation: Scripps Institute of Oceanography/University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Sarah H. Peterson,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Samantha E. Simmons,

    Affiliations: Marine Mammal Commission, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Nicole M. Teutschel,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Stella Villegas-Amtmann,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Ken Yoda

    Affiliation: Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Japan

    X
  • Published: May 15, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036728
  • Published in PLOS ONE

About the Authors

Patrick W. Robinson, Daniel P. Costa, Cory D. Champagne, Melinda A. Fowler, Chandra Goetsch, Kimberly T. Goetz, Jason L. Hassrick, Luis A. Hückstädt, Jennifer L. Maresh, Sara M. Maxwell, Sarah H. Peterson, Nicole M. Teutschel, Stella Villegas-Amtmann
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Daniel E. Crocker
Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California, United States of America
Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso
Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C., Unidad Guaymas, Guaymas, Sonora, México
Carey E. Kuhn
National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center/National Marine Fisheries Service/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Birgitte I. McDonald
Scripps Institute of Oceanography/University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
Samantha E. Simmons
Marine Mammal Commission, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Samantha E. Simmons
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Ken Yoda
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Japan

Corresponding Author

Email: robinson@biology.ucsc.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PWR DPC DEC JPGR JLH SES. Performed the experiments: PWR DPC DEC JPGR CDC MAF CG KTG JLH LAH CEK JLM SMM BIM SHP SES NMT SVA KY. Analyzed the data: PWR DEC CG JLH SHP SES. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DPC DEC JPGR. Wrote the paper: PWR DPC DEC JPGR MAF CG KTG JLH CEK JLM SMM BIM SHP SES NMT SVA.