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Research Article

The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

  • Alex D. Rogers mail,

    alex.rogers@zoo.ox.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Paul A. Tyler,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Douglas P. Connelly,

    Affiliation: Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

    X
  • Jon T. Copley,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Rachael James,

    Affiliation: Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Robert D. Larter,

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Katrin Linse,

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Rachel A. Mills,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Alfredo Naveira Garabato,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Richard D. Pancost,

    Affiliation: School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • David A. Pearce,

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Nicholas V. C. Polunin,

    Affiliation: School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Christopher R. German,

    Affiliation: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Timothy Shank,

    Affiliation: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Philipp H. Boersch-Supan,

    Affiliations: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom

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  • Belinda J. Alker,

    Affiliation: Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Alfred Aquilina,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Sarah A. Bennett,

    Affiliation: Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

    Current address: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States of America

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  • Andrew Clarke,

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Robert J. J. Dinley,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Alastair G. C. Graham,

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Darryl R. H. Green,

    Affiliation: Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Jeffrey A. Hawkes,

    Affiliations: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom, Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Laura Hepburn,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Ana Hilario,

    Affiliation: Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Departmento Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

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  • Veerle A. I. Huvenne,

    Affiliation: Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Leigh Marsh,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Eva Ramirez-Llodra,

    Affiliation: Institut de Ciències del Mar, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Barcelona, Spain

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  • William D. K. Reid,

    Affiliation: School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Christopher N. Roterman,

    Affiliations: Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Christopher J. Sweeting,

    Affiliation: School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Sven Thatje,

    Affiliation: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

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  • Katrin Zwirglmaier

    Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Published: January 03, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001234
  • Published in PLOS Biology

About the Authors

Alex D. Rogers, Philipp H. Boersch-Supan, Christopher N. Roterman
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Paul A. Tyler, Jon T. Copley, Rachel A. Mills, Alfredo Naveira Garabato, Alfred Aquilina, Robert J. J. Dinley, Jeffrey A. Hawkes, Laura Hepburn, Leigh Marsh, Christopher N. Roterman, Sven Thatje
Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
Douglas P. Connelly, Rachael James, Belinda J. Alker, Sarah A. Bennett, Darryl R. H. Green, Jeffrey A. Hawkes, Veerle A. I. Huvenne
Natural Environment Research Council, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
Robert D. Larter, Katrin Linse, David A. Pearce, Andrew Clarke, Alastair G. C. Graham, Katrin Zwirglmaier
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Richard D. Pancost
School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Nicholas V. C. Polunin, William D. K. Reid, Christopher J. Sweeting
School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Christopher R. German, Timothy Shank
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States of America
Philipp H. Boersch-Supan
Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom
Ana Hilario
Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Departmento Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Eva Ramirez-Llodra
Institut de Ciències del Mar, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Barcelona, Spain

Corresponding Author

Email: alex.rogers@zoo.ox.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

The author(s) have made the following declarations about their contributions: Conceived and designed the experiments: NERC consortium PI(PAT); (NERC consortium CoPIs (ADR, JTC, DPC, ANG, RJ, KL, RDL, RAM, RDP, NVCP); JCR224 and JC42 cruise PSOs (RDL, ADR); JCR224 participants (SAB, DPC, JTC, AGCG, AH, ADR, ER-L, PAT); JC42 participants (BA, AA, AC, DPC, JTC, RJJD, AGCG, DG, CRG, JH, LH, VAIH, RJ, KL, LM, WDKR, CNR, CJS, ST, KZ); multivariate analyses PHBS; DAP. Performed the experiments: NERC consortium PI(PAT); (NERC consortium CoPIs (ADR, JTC, DPC, ANG, RJ, KL, RDL, RAM, RDP, NVCP); JCR224 and JC42 cruise PSOs (RDL, ADR); JCR224 participants (SAB, DPC, JTC, AGCG, AH, ADR, ER-L, PAT); JC42 participants (BA, AA, AC, DPC, JTC, RJJD, AGCG, DG, CRG, JH, LH, VAIH, RJ, KL, LM, WDKR, CNR, CJS, ST, KZ); DAP. Analyzed the data: ADR, PAT, JTC, DPC, KL, RDL, CNR, DRHG, PHBS, BA, CRG, KZ, TS, DAP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ADR, PAT, JTC, DPC, KL, RDL, CNR, DRHG, BA, CRG, TS, RAM, RJ, VAIH, AGCG, LM. Wrote the paper: ADR, PAT, JTC, DPC, KL, RDL, TS, PHBS. Prepared the figures: VAIH, AGCG, LM, ADR, PHBS, PAT.