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Research Article

Extracellular and Mixotrophic Symbiosis in the Whale-Fall Mussel Adipicola pacifica: A Trend in Evolution from Extra- to Intracellular Symbiosis

  • Yoshihiro Fujiwara mail,

    fujiwara@jamstec.go.jp

    Affiliation: Chemo-Ecosystem Evolution Research (ChEER) Team, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan

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  • Masaru Kawato,

    Affiliation: Chemo-Ecosystem Evolution Research (ChEER) Team, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan

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  • Chikayo Noda,

    Affiliation: Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park, Miura, Japan

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  • Gin Kinoshita,

    Affiliation: Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan

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  • Toshiro Yamanaka,

    Affiliation: Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan

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  • Yuko Fujita,

    Affiliation: Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan

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  • Katsuyuki Uematsu,

    Affiliation: Department of Technical Services, Marine Work Japan Ltd., Yokosuka, Japan

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  • Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    Affiliation: Faculty of Education and Human Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Japan

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  • Published: July 27, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011808
  • Published in PLOS ONE

About the Authors

Yoshihiro Fujiwara, Masaru Kawato
Chemo-Ecosystem Evolution Research (ChEER) Team, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
Chikayo Noda
Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park, Miura, Japan
Gin Kinoshita
Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan
Toshiro Yamanaka
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
Yuko Fujita
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan
Katsuyuki Uematsu
Department of Technical Services, Marine Work Japan Ltd., Yokosuka, Japan
Jun-Ichi Miyazaki
Faculty of Education and Human Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Japan

Corresponding Author

Email: fujiwara@jamstec.go.jp

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: YF. Performed the experiments: YF MK CN GK TY YF KU JIM. Analyzed the data: YF MK TY. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YF. Wrote the paper: YF TY. Collected samples: YF.