Table of Contents: PLOS Pathogens Pearls


Image Credit: Illustration by Pat Margis (PLoS).
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PLoS Pathogens presents an Open Access compendium of the "lessons-that-last." This section, founded by Dr. Hiten Madhani and now edited by Drs Richard Condit, Rebecca Dutch, William Goldman, Joseph Heitman, Deborah Hogan, Laura Knoll, Virginia Miller, Vincent Racaniello, Don Sheppard, Katherine Spindler and Heather True, is a living collection of short educational and highly useful articles that address topics of relevance and importance within the wide-ranging field of pathogens research, with insights tailored to graduate students and post-docs. Browse the collection by theme on Flipboard.


“Pearls”: A New Type of Open-Access Educational Resource

Hiten D. Madhani, Kasturi Haldar, Grant McFadden


Epicellular Apicomplexans: Parasites “On the Way In”

Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Rebecca D. Oppenheim, Dominique Soldati-Favre, Julius Lukeš

Chemical Signals and Mechanosensing in Bacterial Responses to Their Environment

Akshay K. Harapanahalli, Jessica A. Younes, Elaine Allan, Henny C. van der Mei, Henk J. Busscher

Riding the R Train into the Cell

Daniel DiMaio, Christopher G. Burd, Kylia Goodner

Are Human Intestinal Eukaryotes Beneficial or Commensals?

Julius Lukeš, Christen Rune Stensvold, Kateřina Jirků-Pomajbíková, Laura Wegener Parfrey

Illuminating Targets of Bacterial Secretion

Roger D. Pechous, William E. Goldman

Fungi That Infect Insects: Altering Host Behavior and Beyond

Yanfang Shang, Peng Feng, Chengshu Wang

Periodontal Diseases: Bug Induced, Host Promoted

Shariq A. Khan, Eric F. Kong, Timothy F. Meiller, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

On and Under the Skin: Emerging Basidiomycetous Yeast Infections Caused by Trichosporon Species

Marçal Mariné, Neil Andrew Brown, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Gustavo Henrique Goldman

Cross Kingdom Activators of Five Classes of Bacterial Effectors

David M. Anderson, Jimmy B. Feix, Dara W. Frank

Turning Up the Heat: Inflammasome Activation by Fungal Pathogens

Aldo Henrique Tavares, Pedro Henrique Bürgel, Anamélia Lorenzetti Bocca

RNA Virus Reassortment: An Evolutionary Mechanism for Host Jumps and Immune Evasion

Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Reshmi Mukerji, Gavin J. D. Smith

Exploring Host–Pathogen Interactions through Biological Control

Francesca Di Giallonardo, Edward C. Holmes

Waterborne Viruses: A Barrier to Safe Drinking Water

Aimee M. Gall, Benito J. Mariñas, Yi Lu, Joanna L. Shisler

Is Development of a Vaccine against Cryptococcus neoformans Feasible?

Chrissy M. Leopold Wager, Floyd L. Wormley Jr.

Analysis of Bottlenecks in Experimental Models of Infection

Sören Abel, Pia Abel zur Wiesch, Brigid M. Davis, Matthew K. Waldor

Advances and Challenges in Computational Prediction of Effectors from Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Jana Sperschneider, Peter N. Dodds, Donald M. Gardiner, John M. Manners, Karam B. Singh, Jennifer M. Taylor

Investigating Fungal Outbreaks in the 21st Century

Anastasia P. Litvintseva, Mary E. Brandt, Rajal K. Mody, Shawn R. Lockhart

Dust Devil: The Life and Times of the Fungus That Causes Valley Fever

Eric R. G. Lewis, Jolene R. Bowers, Bridget M. Barker

Remembering Mumps

Donald R. Latner, Carole J. Hickman

Catch Me If You Can: The Link between Autophagy and Viruses

Nicholas J. Lennemann, Carolyn B. Coyne

The Great Escape: Pathogen Versus Host

Eric Kong, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

Prions—Not Your Immunologist’s Pathogen

Mark D. Zabel, Anne C. Avery

Telomeric ORFS in Candida albicans: Does Mediator Tail Wag the Yeast?

Derek J. Sullivan, Judith Berman, Lawrence C. Myers, Gary P. Moran

Yeast Prions: Proteins Templating Conformation and an Anti-prion System

Reed B. Wickner, Herman K. Edskes, David A. Bateman, Anton Gorkovskiy, Yaron Dayani, Evgeny E. Bezsonov, Maryam Mukhamedova

Malassezia Infections in Humans and Animals: Pathophysiology, Detection, and Treatment

Aristea Velegraki, Claudia Cafarchia, Georgios Gaitanis, Roberta Iatta, Teun Boekhout

Unique Features of HIV-1 Spread through T Cell Virological Synapses

Raymond A. Alvarez, Maria Ines Barría, Benjamin K. Chen

Microbial Urease in Health and Disease

Diego Mora, Stefania Arioli

Peculiarities of Prion Diseases

Walker S. Jackson, Clemens Krost

Paracoccidioides Species Complex: Ecology, Phylogeny, Sexual Reproduction, and Virulence

Marcus M. Teixeira, Raquel C. Theodoro, Gustavo Nino-Vega, Eduardo Bagagli, Maria S. S. Felipe

Theory and Empiricism in Virulence Evolution

James J. Bull, Adam S. Lauring

Chrysosporium-Related Fungi and Reptiles: A Fatal Attraction

F. Javier Cabañes, Deanna A. Sutton, Josep Guarro

Teaching Fido New ModiFICation Tricks

Jonathan W. Cruz, Nancy A. Woychik

The Ins and Outs of Rust Haustoria

Diana P. Garnica, Adnane Nemri, Narayana M. Upadhyaya, John P. Rathjen, Peter N. Dodds

Regulatory RNAs Involved in Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

David Lalaouna, Alex Eyraud, Svetlana Chabelskaya, Brice Felden, Eric Massé

Candida albicans Pathogenicity and Epithelial Immunity

Julian R. Naglik, Jonathan P. Richardson, David L. Moyes

The Wide World of Ribosomally Encoded Bacterial Peptides

Rebecca A. Flaherty, Stefan D. Freed, Shaun W. Lee

Defensins and Viral Infection: Dispelling Common Misconceptions

Mayim E. Wiens, Sarah S. Wilson, Carissa M. Lucero, Jason G. Smith

Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of KSHV Oncogenesis of Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated with HIV/AIDS

Lucas E. Cavallin, Pascal Goldschmidt-Clermont, Enrique A. Mesri

Illuminating Fungal Infections with Bioluminescence

Nicolas Papon, Vincent Courdavault, Arnaud Lanoue, Marc Clastre, Matthias Brock

Helminth Infections, Type-2 Immune Response, and Metabolic Syndrome

Aprilianto E. Wiria, Erliyani Sartono, Taniawati Supali, Maria Yazdanbakhsh

Catching Fire: Candida albicans, Macrophages, and Pyroptosis

Damian J. Krysan, Fayyaz S. Sutterwala, Melanie Wellington

Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens

Christian Gortazar, Leslie A. Reperant, Thijs Kuiken, José de la Fuente, Mariana Boadella, Beatriz Martínez-Lopez, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Agustin Estrada-Peña, Christian Drosten, Graham Medley, Richard Ostfeld, Townsend Peterson, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Christian Menge, Marc Artois, Constance Schultsz, Richard Delahay, Jordi Serra-Cobo, Robert Poulin, Frederic Keck, Alonso A. Aguirre, Heikki Henttonen, Andrew P. Dobson, Susan Kutz, Juan Lubroth, Atle Mysterud

PARV4: An Emerging Tetraparvovirus

Philippa C. Matthews, Amna Malik, Ruth Simmons, Colin Sharp, Peter Simmonds, Paul Klenerman

An Overview of Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Jia Meng, Christopher C. Stobart, Anne L. Hotard, Martin L. Moore

Mining Herbaria for Plant Pathogen Genomes: Back to the Future

Kentaro Yoshida, Hernán A. Burbano, Johannes Krause, Marco Thines, Detlef Weigel, Sophien Kamoun

Candida Vaginitis: When Opportunism Knocks, the Host Responds

Brian M. Peters, Junko Yano, Mairi C. Noverr, Paul L. Fidel Jr

Oral Bacteria and Cancer

Sarah E. Whitmore, Richard J. Lamont

Human and Plant Fungal Pathogens: The Role of Secondary Metabolites

Daniel H. Scharf, Thorsten Heinekamp, Axel A. Brakhage

Ranaviruses: Not Just for Frogs

V. Gregory Chinchar, Thomas B. Waltzek

Synthesis and Biological Properties of Fungal Glucosylceramide

Maurizio Del Poeta, Leonardo Nimrichter, Marcio L. Rodrigues, Chiara Luberto

Host Defense via Symbiosis in Drosophila

Phineas T. Hamilton, Steve J. Perlman

Zinc Sequestration: Arming Phagocyte Defense against Fungal Attack

Kavitha Subramanian Vignesh, Julio A. Landero Figueroa, Aleksey Porollo, Joseph A. Caruso, George S. Deepe Jr

Novel Strategies to Enhance Vaccine Immunity against Coccidioidomycosis

Garry T. Cole, Chiung-Yu Hung, Sam D. Sanderson, Brady J. Hurtgen, Marcel Wüthrich, Bruce S. Klein, George S. Deepe, Gary R. Ostroff, Stuart M. Levitz

Burning Down the House: Cellular Actions during Pyroptosis

Christopher N. LaRock, Brad T. Cookson

Colonization Resistance: Battle of the Bugs or Ménage à Trois with the Host?

Alanna M. Spees, Christopher A. Lopez, Dawn D. Kingsbury, Sebastian E. Winter, Andreas J. Bäumler

Disease to Dirt: The Biology of Microbial Amyloids

David A. Hufnagel, Çagla Tükel, Matthew R. Chapman

The Biology and Taxonomy of Head and Body Lice—Implications for Louse-Borne Disease Prevention

Denise L. Bonilla, Lance A. Durden, Marina E. Eremeeva, Gregory A. Dasch

Baculoviruses: Sophisticated Pathogens of Insects

Rollie J. Clem, A. Lorena Passarelli

Bats and Viruses: Friend or Foe?

James W. Wynne, Lin-Fa Wang

Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and the Human Mouth: A Sticky Situation

Khalid H. Metwalli, Shariq A. Khan, Bastiaan P. Krom, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

RNA Biology in Fungal Phytopathogens

Vera Göhre, Carl Haag, Michael Feldbrügge

The Cell Biology of Leishmania: How to Teach Using Animations

Dirceu E. Teixeira, Marlene Benchimol, Juliany C. F. Rodrigues, Paulo H. Crepaldi, Paulo F. P. Pimenta, Wanderley de Souza

Dengue Vaccines: Strongly Sought but Not a Reality Just Yet

Rosa María del Angel, Jorge Reyes-del Valle

Feeding Uninvited Guests: mTOR and AMPK Set the Table for Intracellular Pathogens

Jason Brunton, Shaun Steele, Benjamin Ziehr, Nathaniel Moorman, Thomas Kawula

Memory of Infections: An Emerging Role for Natural Killer Cells

Alexander Rölle, Julia Pollmann, Adelheid Cerwenka

Emerging and Emerged Pathogenic Candida Species: Beyond the Candida albicans Paradigm

Nicolas Papon, Vincent Courdavault, Marc Clastre, Richard J. Bennett

Innate Immune Sensing of Flaviviruses

Mehul S. Suthar, Sebastian Aguirre, Ana Fernandez-Sesma

Atomic Force Microscopy: A New Look at Pathogens

David Alsteens, Audrey Beaussart, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel, Ruby May A. Sullan, Yves F. Dufrêne

Emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

Christopher M. Coleman, Matthew B. Frieman

Host Immune Response to Intestinal Amebiasis

Shannon N. Moonah, Nona M. Jiang, William A. Petri Jr

Relevance of Trehalose in Pathogenicity: Some General Rules, Yet Many Exceptions

Hélène Tournu, Alessandro Fiori, Patrick Van Dijck

Bed Bugs and Infectious Disease: A Case for the Arboviruses

Zach N. Adelman, Dini M. Miller, Kevin M. Myles

Human Genetic Susceptibility to Invasive Aspergillosis

Cristina Cunha, Franco Aversa, Luigina Romani, Agostinho Carvalho

Signalling C-Type Lectins in Antimicrobial Immunity

Rebecca A. Drummond, Gordon D. Brown

Babesia: An Emerging Infectious Threat in Transfusion Medicine

Cheryl A. Lobo, Jeny R. Cursino-Santos, Andy Alhassan, Marilis Rodrigues

Plant Virus Ecology

Marilyn J. Roossinck

Immune Regulation during Helminth Infections

Natasha M. Girgis, Uma Mahesh Gundra, P'ng Loke

Parasites FeS Up: Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis in Eukaryotic Pathogens

Teegan A. Dellibovi-Ragheb, Jolyn E. Gisselberg, Sean T. Prigge

Fifty Shades of Immune Defense

Michael F. Criscitiello, Paul de Figueiredo

The Importance of Prions

Glenn C. Telling

Loss and Retention of RNA Interference in Fungi and Parasites

Francisco E. Nicolás, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Rosa M. Ruiz-Vázquez

Make It, Take It, or Leave It: Heme Metabolism of Parasites

Luděk Kořený, Miroslav Oborník, Julius Lukeš

Innate Sensing of Chitin and Chitosan

Chelsea L. Bueter, Charles A. Specht, Stuart M. Levitz

Zinc Exploitation by Pathogenic Fungi

Duncan Wilson, Francesco Citiulo, Bernhard Hube

Pneumocystis: Where Does It Live?

Francis Gigliotti, Terry W. Wright

Aneuploidy and Drug Resistance in Pathogenic Fungi

Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, Yun C. Chang

Norovirus Immunity and the Great Escape

Kari Debbink, Lisa C. Lindesmith, Eric F. Donaldson, Ralph S. Baric

Copper at the Front Line of the Host-Pathogen Battle

Richard A. Festa, Dennis J. Thiele

Bacterial Cell Surface Heterogeneity: A Pathogen's Disguise

Henny C. van der Mei, Henk J. Busscher

Trichomonosis, a Common Curable STI, and Prostate Carcinogenesis—A Proposed Molecular Mechanism

Siobhan Sutcliffe, Calvin Neace, Nancy S. Magnuson, Raymond Reeves, J. F. Alderete

Host Defense and Tolerance: Unique Challenges in the Placenta

Varvara B. Zeldovich, Anna I. Bakardjiev

Phagocyte Responses to Protozoan Infection and How Toxoplasma gondii Meets the Challenge

Eric Y. Denkers, Anne G. Schneider, Sara B. Cohen, Barbara A. Butcher

Identifying Host Factors That Regulate Viral Infection

Tien-Huei Hsu, Katherine R. Spindler

Gastrointestinal Cell Mediated Immunity and the Microsporidia

Magali M. Moretto, Imtiaz A. Khan, Louis M. Weiss

Polydnaviruses as Symbionts and Gene Delivery Systems

Michael R. Strand, Gaelen R. Burke

Hydrophobins—Unique Fungal Proteins

Jagadeesh Bayry, Vishukumar Aimanianda, J. Iñaki Guijarro, Margaret Sunde, Jean-Paul Latgé

Influence of Microbiota on Viral Infections

Jessica Wilks, Tatyana Golovkina

Type III Secretion in Yersinia: Injectisome or Not?

Tomas Edgren, Åke Forsberg, Roland Rosqvist, Hans Wolf-Watz

Five Questions on Prion Diseases

Adriano Aguzzi, Caihong Zhu

Fungal Biofilms

Saranna Fanning, Aaron P. Mitchell

A Foot in the Door for Dermatophyte Research

Rebecca Rashid Achterman, Theodore C. White

New Insights into Blastocystis spp.: A Potential Link with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Philippe Poirier, Ivan Wawrzyniak, Christian P. Vivarès, Frédéric Delbac, Hicham El Alaoui

Selecting an Invertebrate Model Host for the Study of Fungal Pathogenesis

Athanasios Desalermos, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Eleftherios Mylonakis

Sexual Development in Plasmodium: Lessons from Functional Analyses

David S. Guttery, Anthony A. Holder, Rita Tewari

Sequence Divergent RXLR Effectors Share a Structural Fold Conserved across Plant Pathogenic Oomycete Species

Joe Win, Ksenia V. Krasileva, Sophien Kamoun, Ken Shirasu, Brian J. Staskawicz, Mark J. Banfield

“Persisters”: Survival at the Cellular Level

Clinton C. Dawson, Chaidan Intapa, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

Innate Immune Sensing of DNA

Shruti Sharma, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Viral Encephalomyelitis

Diane E. Griffin

Pathogenesis of the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus

Tokiko Watanabe, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Antimicrobial Peptides: Primeval Molecules or Future Drugs?

Brian M. Peters, Mark E. Shirtliff, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

RNA Virus Replication Complexes

Yizhi Jane Tao, Qiaozhen Ye

The Deadly Chytrid Fungus: A Story of an Emerging Pathogen

Erica Bree Rosenblum, Jamie Voyles, Thomas J. Poorten, Jason E. Stajich

The Inflammasomes

Mohamed Lamkanfi, Vishva M. Dixit

The Photobiology of Microbial Pathogenesis

Alexander Idnurm, Sean Crosson

Anatomy of Viral Persistence

Michael B. A. Oldstone